ФизФак

The History of the Faculty

The dawn of the faculty of physics takes us to the 30 years of the last century. As part of the main scientific disciplines, the study of physics was of great importance for the Voronezh state University. The first head of the Department of physics was a veteran of the University Professor N. A. Sakharov. The Department conducted work on the application of the photoelectric method and photometry to the study of radiant energy, as well as optics. The scientific work was noticeably revived after the arrival of Professor A. p. Pospelov, who moved to Voronezh from Tomsk.

In the early 1930s, the Department of Geophysics was restored as part of the physical Department. The traditions of geophysical research at the Voronezh University were founded by the famous scientist Professor B. I. Sreznevsky. But to work in Voronezh, he was destined only to the hungry 1920, Then geophysical studies for many years was headed by Professor A. V. Shipchenski.

By 1935, Voronezh state University had survived the time typical for all provincial universities. The rise of industry and the need to replenish and update the engineering staff due to the “proletarian-poor youth” sparked a wave of purges and reorganizations 29-30, threatened the elimination of all universities, except the Metropolitan, as structures existing before the revolution, and therefore “obsolete”. Then, in 1931-32, there was a correction of mistakes and restoration of the status of universities as the main educational institutions. It was during these years that the “established” Voronezh University organized first departments - mechanical-mathematical, physical, chemical, Zoological and Botanical, and in 1933 the faculties were re-established: chemical, biological, physical and mathematical. In 1934, the physicist was formed in three specialties: mathematics, aerodynamics, experimental and technical physics. In 1935 the Department of theoretical physics appeared.

Shortly after the reorganization of the University administration raised the question about the construction of a new academic building for the physics and chemistry departments. It was necessary to build new dormitories, as the majority of students came from the cities and villages adjacent to Voronezh. However, funding was scarce. There was a lack of funds for the maintenance of technical personnel. The state of the University premises, to put it mildly, left much to be desired.

Major changes for the better took place in 1933 were established control figures admission to the day Department. According to the plans of the people’s Commissariat of education for the 1st year of the Voronezh University it was necessary to take 210 students, including two groups (60 people) at the chemical Department, the same-at the Botanical and one group (30 people) at the Zoological, mathematical and physical. But the most important innovation of this year concerned the structural construction of the University. In may, the party Bureau approved the proposal to restore the faculty system. It was decided that instead of five departments at the Voronezh University there will be three faculties: chemical, biological and physico-mathematical. The faculties, in turn, consisted of several departments. The restoration of the University’s traditional system of divisions has played a positive role in the development of educational and scientific.

Immediately after the anniversary, the construction of a new educational building for the departments of physical and chemical profile on FR street was launched.Engel’s. It was noted that the number of students at the University increased to 750 people. The rate of admission to the VSU in 1933 was 230 people (210 students and 20 graduate students). In the title list of universities of the Russian Federation in 1933 from 12 universities of the Republic of Voronezh took the fifth place after Moscow, Leningrad, Tomsk and Kazan.

The faculty of physics and mathematics continued to develop successfully. A great success was the move to Voronezh of a talented and very authoritative researcher Professor Maria Afanasievna Levitskaya. Before moving to the VSU mA Levitskaya worked at The state optical Institute in Leningrad and was already established scientist. She was born in Tashkent in 1885 and after graduating with a gold medal from the 2nd Kharkiv women’s gymnasium entered the physics and mathematics Department of the famous Bestuzhev higher female courses. A semester and a half studied at the University of Berlin, where she attended lectures by outstanding physicists M. Planck and P. Druze. In 1911 she received a scholarship for training in Gettimestamp University. After the revolution, and M. A. Levitskaya, he worked in the Tomsk University and then in Turkestan. In 1925 she accepted the invitation of academician A. F. Ioffe to work at the Leningrad physical-technical x-ray Institute. As she herself admitted,”the difficult conditions of service (the range of the apartment with the inability to replace it) forced me to look for a Professor’s place in the province.” So she was in Voronezh. Its contribution to the development of physical separation cannot be overestimated. Almost immediately after her appearance at the University she opened the Department of electromagnetic oscillations, where she began to specialize students in x-ray physics, optics and the structure of matter. Subsequently, it was on the basis of the Department of electromagnetic oscillations were opened many other departments of physical Department of physical Mat. Professor Levitskaya read nuclear physics in Voronezh.

At the University hospital 1825 students were trained, 80 of them were participants of the great Patriotic war. Most of the students studied at the faculty of physics and mathematics (418). By the autumn of 1961, the educational process at the University was simply suffocating. The commissioning of the new main building was delayed, while the number of students was increased. Therefore, in the autumn of 1961, the administration was forced to issue orders to conduct classes on Sundays, to reduce the hours of drawing in the physical and mathematical-mechanical faculties, in foreign languages for students of different courses. The faculties grew faster than the buildings, and the premises were sorely lacking.

Other structural units were also strengthened. At the physical Department, promising areas were rapidly developing, which were very popular among young people. The Department of nuclear physics was established here, where a group of talented young researchers worked. At the Department of electromagnetic oscillations was created a special laboratory, which was headed by Professor R. R. Doppel, which appeared in the first half of the 50s in the physical Department. Robert Doppel, Professor, doctor of philosophy, before the First world war received a thorough theoretical training at the universities of Germany, in the twenties he specialized at the University of Wurzburg at the Nobel laureate Wilhelm Wien. Before the Second world war he worked in the German nuclear center near Berlin, participating in the development of the atomic bomb.

In the thirties of the XX century, when Germany was already living in an environment of fascist “new order”, this country remained the center of physical science. For the implementation of the plans for world domination Hitlerism needed uranium bomb. On the project of its creation worked the German researchers, nuclear physicists, including Werner Heisenberg, head of the German uranium project Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman, theorist Weizsaecker, Nobel laureate von Laue, etc., Along with such “big stars” have a chance to work with Robert Doppel.

However, the atomic bomb in Germany has not been created. One of the chapters-the reasons are well known: still the Germans did not have enough qualified personnel researchers, nuclear physicists, both from Germany, were expelled or emigrated a wonderful physics - “non-Aryans” Leo Scylla-lard, Max born, Otto Frisch, genius albert Einstein, one of the co-stately atomic and thermonuclear bombs in the United States Edward teller and others In 1945 under American bombs in Germany lost daughter and wife Coppelia. In recent years, Robert Doppel, the first Voronezh nuclear worker, lived in his homeland in the United Germany.

The main activity of Doppel At the Voronezh University was that he was together with M. A. Levitskaya organizer of the laboratory, which later (1959) became the Department of nuclear physics. Under his leadership, research was conducted selective photoelectric effect, radiation physics of gas discharge and nuclear physics. The task of the laboratory was to monitor artificial satellites.

After the departure of prof. Doppel to Germany, this Department was headed by Leonid Sukhotin.

The success in space exploration caused in those years the most sincere enthusiasm of the Soviet youth, and representatives of local authorities with great respect to the scientific observations of University physicists. In January 1959, the University computer center was opened by the staff of the faculty of physics and mathematics. His staff successfully worked on the first Soviet serial computer “Ural-1”, which required an area of about 70 m2. This bulky machine could perform a hundred operations per second. The technique was far from perfect, some of its nodes were often out of order. However, the computer center led by A. S. Sivkov worked selflessly on solving increasingly complex computational problems, many of which were of great applied importance. In 1965, the University was allocated a more advanced machine “Hrazdan”.

In April 1958, physics of the University celebrated the 75th anniversary of Professor M. A. Levitskaya. Congratulating the hero of the day, colleagues noted the success in the development of theoretical physics, optics, Radiophysics, nuclear physics and the outstanding role of a talented scientist and a remarkable worker in the formation and development of University physical research.

In 1959, the number of faculties at the University increased to eight. The faculty of physics and mathematics was divided into two separate departments: physics and mathematics and mechanics. The very fact of this division showed the rapid growth of these units. In may of the same year, new departments were created at the faculty of physics: nuclear physics, radio physics, semiconductors.

The faculty of mathematics and mechanics continued to grow rapidly structurally. In 1961. The Department of mathematical physics and computational mathematics was divided into two separate departments. The Department of mathematical physics, headed by Professor p. B. Cherpakov, was transferred to the faculty of physics, and the remaining Department of computational mathematics was headed by Professor S. G. crane.

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