Faculty of Physics

Theoretical physics Department today

The origins of the Department

The concept of “Scientific school”, as is known, implies a certain direction in science, associated with the unity of basic views, continuity of principles and methods. A necessary feature of the school is also a fairly narrow range of scientific problems, the original solution of which is the dignity of this particular team of scientists. All these features certainly has a scientific school “ Fundamental problems of interaction of optical radiation with atoms and molecules.” It was founded and for many years ideologically inspired by doctor of physical and mathematical Sciences, Professor, honored scientist of Russia Rapoport Lev Pavlovich (1920-2000). From 1956 to 1993, he headed the Department of theoretical physics of Voronezh state University, and from 1993 to the most recent time as a Professor continued her active work. During this period, L. p. Rapoport managed to prepare and gather the most talented students through the institutes of postgraduate study and competition, rallying them not only in the General direction of research topics, but also in the common principles of scientific and purely human relations. L. p. Rapoport was an absolute authority in solving all kinds of problems arising in the functioning of such a complex team as a scientific school. This was largely due to his individual traits such as an extremely acute sense of the new, relevant, the ability to constantly be at the forefront of scientific research, and this despite the “peripheral” of the University, the ability to choose their own original way of research. Great erudition and amazing breadth of scientific interests have always helped L. p. Rapoport relatively easy to switch from those problems where the main tasks have already been solved to new ones, often from very different branches of physics. He was also characterized by demands, the ability to set a high bar in science and in academic work, without succumbing to market trends and the influence of authorities. All these features he tried to instill in his students and implement in the activities of the scientific school. Its successful operation and international fame show That to a large extent L. p. Rapoport succeeded.

The main direction of scientific research of the last twenty years, which is associated with the most significant results, as reflected in the official name of the scientific school, did not arise immediately. In the 50 – 60s, at a time when nuclear physics research was particularly relevant, the scientific research of L. p. Rapoport and his students was carried out in the field of nuclear theory. Their efforts have developed modern versions of the theory of α-decay, proton and cluster radioactivity of atomic nuclei, β-decay and electron capture in them, the theory of secondary processes in the nuclear field. These studies formed the basis for theses and dissertations D. SC.M. B. S. G. Kamenskogo (1978 — head of Department of nuclear physics, Voronezh state University), D. SC.M. B. I. V. Kopytin (since 1993 — head of the Department of theoretical physics, Voronezh state University), D. SC.M. B. I. S. Bakhtin (up to 1992 — Professor, Department of nuclear physics, since 1993 — Professor, University of Ottawa (Canada)). In addition, the staff of the Department of theoretical physics in this direction prepared a number of specialists, who later became known for their scientific achievements:M. N., prof. Pyatov N. And. (chief researcher Of the laboratory of theoretical physics of the joint Institute for nuclear research (JINR), Dubna), Furman V. I. (Deputy Director of the Laboratory of neutron physics of JINR), Ivanov I. N. (Deputy Director of the Laboratory of high energy of JINR), pustylnik (scientific Secretary of the Laboratory of nuclear reactions of JINR). Research in this area is still ongoing at the departments of theoretical and nuclear physics, focusing on the problems of the theory of nuclear reactions, collisions of heavy ions and nuclear astrophysics. At the Department of theoretical physics, the direction associated with the study of electromagnetic radiation in collisions of heavy ions is headed by Professor I. V. Kopytin.

The scientific potential accumulated at the Department of theoretical physics at this initial stage of research was sufficient to expand their subjects and switch to a new range of tasks set by the intensive development of experimental research in the field of laser physics. In particular, the problem of the behavior of atoms and molecules in the intense electromagnetic fields of the optical frequency range has acquired the greatest relevance in theoretical terms. Since the beginning of 70-ies and until recently, that is processes of this kind began to define the range of scientific interests L. P. Rapoport and his closest disciples — Prof. M. B. A. B. Area (since 1980 — head of mathematical physics Department, Voronezh state University) , D. SC.m. n. N.L.Manakova (since 1980 — Professor of theoretical physics, Voronezh state University), D. SC.M. B. V. D. Ovsyannikov (since 1995 — Professor of theoretical physics, Voronezh state University), D. SC.M. B. S. A. zapryagaeva (1998 — Professor, Department of theoretical physics, Voronezh state University, ex-first Vice-rector of Voronezh state University), D. SC.M. B. P. A. Golovin (Professor of the Voronezh architectural and construction Academy), D. SC.- M. A. F. klinskikh (associate Professor of Voronezh state agricultural University, doctor of agricultural Sciences, 2000), doctor of agricultural Sciences M. N. V. G. Palchikova (leading researcher Of the research Institute of physical, technical and radio measurements (vniif-3, Mendeleevo, Moscow region), etc.

Current research areas

The main direction of these scientific researches under the name “Fundamental problems of interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms and molecules” was transformed into new scientific directions:

  • Theory of atoms and molecules in strong electromagnetic fields and nonlinear optical processes in gases.

  • Relativistic theory of atoms and multicharged ions.

  • Conversion of laser frequencies and stability problems of quantum systems in superstrong electromagnetic fields.

  • Use of dissipative-induced polarization dichroism for nonlinear laser spectroscopy of atoms and ions.

Research in these areas is stimulated by the sustained interest of the world scientific community in the processes of interaction of laser radiation with matter. It is enough to point to the range of application of modern lasers, which has recently been achieved in science and technology, including household appliances — from the creation of ultra-precise devices for welding metals to miniaturization of modern computer facilities, from cable television and fiber-optic communication systems to modern means of space navigation and information transmission. Significant hopes in the development of new sources of energy physics associated with laser-controlled thermonuclear reaction.

Understanding the processes of interaction of high-power pulses of laser radiation with matter is impossible without fundamental knowledge based on a strict mathematical description of the elementary effects of the interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms, molecules and elementary particles. The scientific research activity of the staff of the Department of theoretical physics of VSU is devoted to the acquisition of this knowledge.

Each of the directions is headed by one of the professors of the Department — a student of L. p. Rapoport. So, a group of employees and graduate students, led by prof.L.Manakov, conducts a study of the behavior of simple quantum systems in superstrong laser fields. In particular, the possibility of using the discovered H has been thoroughly studied.L.Manakov and G. Feinstein in the 80s of the effect of dissipative-induced optical dichroism both for the study of the spectroscopic properties of atoms and molecules, and to improve the conversion of the polarization-frequency properties of high-power light beams in a nonlinear atomic medium.

Scientific research led by Prof. V. D. Ovsyannikov is aimed at studying the effect of strong electromagnetic fields on the spectroscopic properties of atoms.

The Department of mathematical physics under supervision of Professor B. A. Area studies of Rydberg States in polar atoms and molecules, and processes of internal conversion. The scientific interests of this group also include nonlinear magneto-optics, tunnel ionization, orientation of molecules in a strong laser field, etc.

Under the guidance of prof. S. A. Zapryagaev the study of quantum-electrodynamic effects in the spectra of multi — ion-specific objects existing in high-temperature plasma is carried out. The basis of these studies is the method of relativistic Coulomb green’s function, developed at the Department in the 1970s. The data obtained in these studies provide important spectroscopic information required both for studying the structure of plasma objects and for controlling the processes occurring in them.

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